NAFIISA YUUSUF MAXAMED: SHAKHSI CALANKA U SIDDA OLOLAHA XUQUUQDA HAWEENKA EE SOMALILAND

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Tuesday 12th January 2021 09:27:16 in Aragtida Dadweynaha by Madaxa Wararka
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    NAFIISA YUUSUF MAXAMED: SHAKHSI CALANKA U SIDDA OLOLAHA XUQUUQDA HAWEENKA EE SOMALILAND

    Qofka booqda Nafiisa Yuusuf Maxamed, inta aanu gudahaba u gelin xafiiskeeda,

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Qofka booqda Nafiisa Yuusuf Maxamed, inta aanu gudahaba u gelin xafiiskeeda,
wuxu si buuxda u fahmayaa fikradaha ay aaminsan tahay.

Warqad weyn oo ay adag tahay in la il-duufo ayaa gidaarka dibedda ee xafiiskeeda ku dhejisan, waxaana ku qoran "Dumarnimadu ka badan inta bayoolojiga ah".

Waa hooyo 44 jir ah oo leh toddoba carruur ah, waxaanay safka hore kaga jirtaa dedaallada baadigoobka xuquuqda haweenka ee Somaliland, waana shaqo ay caan ku tahay in ka badan toban sanno.

"Somaliland horumar ayay ka samaysay dhinaca siyaasadda, dhaqaalaha iyo amniga sannadihii la soo dhaafay, laakiin wali fari kama qodna xuquuqda haweenka" ayay tidhi Nafiisa.

Nafiisa hadda waa Agaasimaha Fulinta ee Nagaad oo ah dallad midaysa 46 ururrada haweenka ah oo ku baahsan Somailand. Waxay xilkan haysa tobankii sanno ee u dambeeyey.

"Waxan ahay qofka ugu horreeya ee xafiiska yimaad uguna dambeeya rawaxaadda, maadaama ay i saaran yihiin masuuliyado ka badan inta shaqaalaha kale saaran. Sidoo kale, waxaan rabaa in aan noqdo tusaale ay shaqaaluhu ku daydaan" ayay tidhi Nafiisa iyadoo ka hadlaysay jadwalkeeda shaqada kaas oo bilaabma 7.00da subaxnimo maalin walba.

Nafiisa waxay 1976kii ku dhalatay Hargeysa, waxbarashadeedii aasaasiga ahayd waxay ku dhamaystay Hargeysa, sidoo kale waxay shahaadadda master-ta ku qaatay Iskaashiga Caalamiga ah iyo Gargaarka Aadaminimada, waxayna ka qaadatay Jaamacadda KALU Institute ee ku taalla Spain.

Nafiisa waxa ku dhiirigeliyey u doodista xuquuqda haweenka iyadoo bilawgii nolosheedaba ay u muuqatay in haweenka Somaliland aanay si caddaalad ah u helin xuquuqahooda kala duwan sida xuquuqaha dhaqaalaha, siyaasadda iyo bulshada. Sidoo kale, Nafisa waxay u soo joogtay tacaddiyo dumarka lagula kaco oo uu ka mid yahay gudniinka gabdhuhu.

"Waxaan is tusay in wax laga qaban karo xuquuqda haweenka. Sidii uu yidhi Mahatma Gandhi, waxan go'aansaday in aan qayb ka noqdo is beddelka aan doonayo in aan ku arko Somaliland" ayay tidhi.

Marka la eego Qiyaastii Tirada Dadka ee ay samaysay UNFPA 2014kii, tirada dadka Somaliland waxay ahayd 3.6, sannadkan ina dhaafay ee 2020 waxa lagu qiimeeyey tirade Somaliland 4.2 milyan oo qof, iyadoo dadka badankiisuna ay ku nool yihiin magaalooyinka. Haweenku waxay tirada guud ee Somaliland ka yihiin 50%.

Metelaadda Siyaasadda

Nafiisa waxay hadda waajahaysaa laba caqabadood: sidii ay haweenku u heli lahaan metelaad siyaasadeed iyo sidii aan loo ansixiyeen Xeerka Kufsiga, Sinada iyoXadgudubyada la Xidhiidha.

Bishii September 2020, waxay hor kacday mudaharaad lagu diidanaa sharci ay ansixiyeen Golaha Wakiillada Somaliland kaas oo laga saaray kootadii loo qoondeeyey haweenka ee baarlamaanka.

"Waxa suurtagal ah in aan haweenku metelaad ku yeelan baarlamaanka Somaliland, taasina wax la aqbali karo maaha. Dumarka tiradoodu way ka badan tahay 50% dadweynaha Somaliland, sidaa daraadeed waa in ay helaan xuquuqdooda siyaasadeed" ayay tidhi Nafiisa iyadoo raacisay in ciddii ugu badnayd ee u codaysay ragga maanta fadhiya baarlamaanku ay ahaayeen haweenka. Haweenku hadda hal xildhibaan ayay ku leeyihiin Golaha Wakiillada Somaliland oo ka kooban 82 xildhibaan.

"Halkii ay uga dagaalami lahaayeen xuquuqda haweenka, waxay noogu abaal gudeen in ay kootadii haweenka Xeerka ka tuuraan ayay tidhi Nafiisa. "Ma dhici doonto in aanu mar dambe u codayno ragga indhaha ka qarsada xuquuqda siyaasadeed ee haweenka"

 

Xeerka Xadgudubyada Galmada

25kii August 2020, xildhibaannada Golaha Wakiillada ee Somaliland waxay ansixiyey xeer cusub oo loo yaqaan "Xeerka Kufsiga, Sinada iyo Xadgudubyada la Xidhiidha". Ansixinta xeerkaa waxa si weyn loogu arkay dib-u-dhac ku yimid xuquuqdii haweenka.

Xeerkan lagu muransan yahay wuxu carruurta ku qeexayaa wixii ka yar 15 jir, wuxu oggolaanayaa in waalidka ama ciddii kale ee masuul ahi ay u guurin karto dadka maskaxdoodu dhiman tahay ama carruurta ee ay masuulka ka yihiin, faldambiyeedyada qaar wuxu ku qeexayaa sixir taas oo qofkii lagu helo ciqaabtiisu noqonayso dil.

Wuxu xeerku meesha ka saaray qodobo muhiim ah oo ku jiray xeerkii hore, waxaana ka mid ah qeexitaannada dhammaan noocyada xadgudubyada ku salaysan jinsiga, adeegsiga caddaymaha shaybaadhada marka uu kufsi dhaco iyo mamnuucidda guurka khasabka ah iyo guurka carruurta.

Xeerkan cusubi wuxu beddeli doonaa Xeerkii Kufsiga iyo Xadgudubyada la Xidhiidha Galmada- xeerkaas oo ay Dalladda Isku-xidhka Haweenka ee Nagaad iyo ururada bulshada rayidka ah ee Somaliland ka soo shaqaynayeen muddo sideed sanno ah, iyagoo taageero ka helayey UNFPA.

Inkastoo uu Aqalka Hoose ansixiyey, haddana Xeerku wuxu u gudbi doonaa oo codka u qaadi doona Aqalka Sare "Guurtida", kadibna waxa saxeexi doona Madaxweynaha, markaas ayuu dhaqangal noqon doonaa.

"Waxaanu abaabulaynaa ururrada bulshada rayidka ah ee Somaliland si looga hor tago Xeerkan. Wax dedaal ah la hadhi mayno si aanu ugu qancino Guurtida in aanay ansixin" ayay tidhi Nafiisa.

Waxay intaa raacisay "Sharcigan looma samayn si furan, laga wada qaybqaatay oo dimuqraadi ah. Dood ay dadweynuhu ka qaybqaateen lagama yeelan, haweenka iyo garyaqaanada midna lagalama tashan. Wuxu iska ahaa fikrado ay qoreen kooxo gaar ahi. Nasiibdarro, waxa degdeg loogu gudbiyey Golaha Wakiillada kuwaas oo iyaguna markiiba saxeexay iyagoo aan dood culus ka yeelan sidii caadadu ahaan jirtay".

Xeerkii hore

Xeerkii hore- oo loo yaqaanay Xeer Lambar 78/2018- wuxu guul u ahaa Dalladda Haweenka ee Nagaad iyo saaxiibbada horumarka kala shaqeeya. Sannada badan oo ololayn iyo wada-tashi ah kadib, Golaha Wasiirrada ee Somaliland ayaa Xeerka ansixiyey, waxayna u gudbiyeen Goleyaasha Baarlamaanka, kuwaas oo markii ay ansixiyeen uu Madaxweynuhuna sharci ahaan u saxeexay sannadkii 2018kii.

Dad badan oo reer Somaliland ah iyo beesha caalamkuba waxay ku ammaaneen in uu yahay xeer faahfaahsan, dhammaystiran, si wanaagsanna wax uga qabanaya xadgudubyada ku salaysan jinsiga, gaar ahaan dambiyada la xidhiidha galmada. Laakiin guushaasi wakhti dheer may sii waarin. Dad ka soo horjeestay Xeerka ayaa sababay in aan la dhigin maxkamadaha si loo fuliyo.

"Waxa jiray dad badan oo aan ku faraxsanayn Xeer Lam. 78/2018. Sidaas daraadeed waxay abuureen borobogaandho odhanaysa xeerku wuxu dhiirigelinayaa in raggu ragga guursado, haweenkuna haweenka guursadaan, taas oo aan gebi ahaanba run ahayn" ayay tidhi.

"Ayaan-darradu maaha oo kali ah in xeerkii aan muddada dheer ka soo shaqaynaynay la beddeli doono, hase ahaateen waxaanu ka niyad xun nahay xeerkan lagu magacaabay Kufsiga, Sinada iyo Xadgudubyada La Xidhiidha, kaas oo aan u arko in aanu waxba ka qabanayn xadgudubyada galmada ee lagula kaco haween iyo gabdhaha Somaliland. Taas ka-soo-horjeedkeeda, waxaban aaminsanahay in uu xeerkani uu si dadban u dhiirigelinayo kuwa dambiyadaa ku kaca."

Daraasadda Qiimaynta Rabshadaha Dhallinyarada, taas oo ay samaysay, SONYO, ayaa lagu ogaaday in 16% hablaha ay da'doodu u dhaxayso 15 ilaa 30 ay mar ka mid ah noloshooda la kulmaan kufsi.

Daraasad ay dhawaan samaysay xukuumadda Somaliland, gaar ahaan Wasaaradda Qorshaynta iyo Horumarinta Qaranka iyo Wasaaradda Horumarinta Caafimaadka, taas oo ay taageertay UNFPA, ayaa haweenkii lagu waraystay in ka badan 70% waxay tibaaxeen in noocyada tacadiyada ka dhanka ah haweenka ee guryaha dhexdooda ka dhaca ay isugu jiraan gacan-ka-hadal, waxbarashada oo loo diido, guur lagu khasbo, kufsi iyo tacadi galmo.

Sidoo kale waxay daraasaddu sheegtay in haweenka waxbarashadoodu sarrayso ay u badan tahay in ay qiraan tacaydiyadda guriga kaga dhaca marka loo barbar dhigo haweenka heerka waxbarashadoodu hoosayso.

Sidoo kale, 12% haweenka da'doodu u dhaxayso 15-49 ayaa sheegay in ay la kulmeen tacadiyo jidheed laga soo bilaabo markii ay ahaayeen 12 jir, iyadoo boqolkiiba lix ka mid ah haweenku ay sheegeen in ay tacadiyo jidheed la kulmeen 12kii bilood ee ka horreeyey wakhtigii daraasadda la sameeyey. Gudniinka gabdhaha ayaa Somaliland lagaga dhaqmayey tobannaan sanno. UNFPA waxay daraasadda ku ogaatay in tirada haween ah ee lagu sameeyey gudniinka ee da'doodu u dhaxayso 15- 49 ay sarrayso isla markaana gaadhayso 98%.

"Waxaba dhaanta in aan xeerba jirin haddii ay noqonayso in la fuliyo Xeerka Kufsiga, Sinada iyo Xadgudubyada La Xidhiidha. Waxaanu arkaynaa in aanu wax ka qaban karayn xadgudubyada la xidhiidha galmada. Waxa loo baahan yahay xeer intan ka ballaadhan kana wax-ku-oolsan" ayay tidhi Nafiisa. "In xeerkayagii la socodsiin waayo waxay nagu ahayd dhib-u-dhac iyo niyadjab, hase ahaatee waanu wadaynaa dedaalka mana nasanayno ilaa aanu hubinayno in ay jiraan xeerar ku filan oo haweenka ka difaaci kara xadgudubyada lagula kaco isla markaana siin kara dhammaan xuquuqaha ay u qalmaan."

Xigasho Websaydka Hay'adda Qaramada Midoobay ee UNSOM

https://unsom.unmissions.org/so/nafiisa-yuusuf-maxamed-shakhsi-calanka-u-sidda-ololaha-xuquuqda-haweenka-ee-somaliland




Nafisa and a group of women from civil society organizations protesting October 14, 2020 against the rape and murder of Ugbaad Ali in Burao

11 Jan2021

NAFISA YUSUF MOHAMED: A DRIVING FORCE FOR WOMEN'S RIGHTS IN SOMALILAND

Hargeisa -Even before a visitor sits down in the office of Nafisa Yusuf Mohamed, they are fully aware of her views.

There is a hard-to-miss, large poster on a wall in her office, which reads: "Being a woman is more than biology."

The 44-year-old mother of seven is at the forefront of women's rights efforts in Somaliland, widely-recognized for her advocacy in this area over the past decade.

"Somaliland has made progress in political, economic and security issues over recent years, but we still have a way to go with women's rights," Ms. Mohamed says.

She currently serves as the Executive Director of the Nagaad Women's Network, a coalition of 46 women's organizations across Somaliland. She has been in this role for the past 10 years.

"I am the first to come and the last to leave, as I shoulder more responsibilities than any other person in the organization and I believe that I should lead by example," Ms. Mohamed says about her workload and schedule, which sees her in her office at 7:00 a.m. every day.

Born in Somaliland's capital, Hargeisa, in 1976, Ms. Mohamed was schooled in Hargeisa and completed a master's degree in International Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid from the KALU Institute in Spain.

Her motivation to become a women's rights activist stemmed from a realization, at an early age, that women in Somaliland do not have equal access to basic rights in various areas, ranging from economic, and political to social rights. Growing up, she witnessed gender-based violence and other abuses, such as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

"I thought that something can be done about it and that's how I got into women's rights. As Mahatma Gandhi said, I decided to be the change that I wanted to see in Somaliland," she says.

According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the Somaliland population was estimated at 3.6 million in 2014 and has been projected to 4.2 million in 2020, with bulk of the population living in urban centres. Women make up 50 per cent of Somaliland's population.


Political representation

The activist is currently facing two challenges: women's representation in Somaliland's political arena and the repeal of a law on sexual offences.

In September 2020, she led a protest against a newly-amended election law approved by Somaliland lawmakers which removed a proposed quota for women's representation in parliament.

"The fact that women might not be represented in parliament is unacceptable. Women make up more than 50 per cent of the Somaliland population and they should have their political rights," Ms. Mohamed notes, adding that the majority of the people who voted for the incumbent member of parliament were women. There is currently one woman serving in Somaliland's 82-member lower house of parliament.

Instead of fighting for the rights of women, they rewarded us negatively by removing the proposal for a women's quota from the Elections Act," she adds. "We will no longer vote for men who turn a blind eye to women's political rights."

Sexual offences bill

On 25 August 2020, lawmakers in Somaliland's lower house of parliament approved a new law, known as the Rape, Fornication and Other Related Offences Bill, widely seen as a step backwards for women's rights.

The controversial bill defines a child as anyone below the age of 15 years; it permits guardians or parents to arrange a marriage for the mentally ill persons under their charge, even if they are adults criminalizing an act it defines as using witchcraft to cause rape and even proffering the death penalty, if found guilty.


It also removed important details and specifics related to sexual offences that were in the original bill, including clear definitions of all types of gender-based violence, using forensic science to obtain evidence of rape and the prohibition of forced and child marriages.

The new bill would replace the Rape and Sexual Offences Act – a law that the Nagaad Women's Network and other civil society organizations had been working on for eight years, with support from UNFPA.

While approved by the lower house, the bill has yet to go to the vote in the upper house – the 'Guurti' – after which it would be signed into law by Somaliland's president in order to come into effect.

"We are mobilizing civil society organizations in Somaliland against the bill. We are sparing no effort to ensure that the Guurti does not pass it," Ms. Mohamed says.

"It has not been drafted in an open, participatory and democratic manner," she continues. "There was no public debate on it; women and lawyers were not consulted. It is nothing more than opinions of certain groups. Unfortunately, it was rushed to the House of Representatives and they immediately approved it without having the usual robust debate."

Original bill

The original bill – widely known locally as Law No. 78/2018 – was a victory for the Nagaad Women's Network and its partners. After years of lobbying and consultations, Somaliland's Council of Ministers initiated the bill and the two houses of the parliament approved it, and the president signed it into law in 2018.

Many in Somaliland, as well as the international community, commended it for its comprehensive approach to dealing with gender based violence against women, particularly sexual offences. However, the victory was short-lived. Opposition to some elements of the bill led to it not being gazetted into law.

"Some people were not happy with Law No. 78/2018, so they created propaganda against it, including an argument that the law encourages homosexuality and lesbianism, which was completely not true," Ms. Mohamed says.

"It is not only unfortunate that the law that we have been working on for a long time might be replaced, but I am also disappointed by the so-called Rape, Fornication and Other Related Offenses Bill as I do not think the bill addresses the serious crimes of a sexual nature committed against women and girls in Somaliland. On the contrary, I believe it might indirectly encourage the perpetration of these crimes."

According to the Somaliland Youth Violence Baseline, a study organized by the Somaliland National Youth Organisation (SONYO Umbrella), 16 per cent of young females, aged between 15 and 30, experience at least one rape in their lifetime.

A recent Somaliland government survey by its Ministry of Planning and National Development and Ministry of Health Development, and supported by UNFPA, noted that more than 70 per cent of women interviewed indicated that the forms of domestic violence are physical assault, denial of education, forced marriage, rape and sexual harassment.

The survey also noted that women with higher education are more likely to acknowledge the occurrence of domestic violence as opposed to women without lower levels of education.

In addition, 12 per cent of women aged 15-49 reported that they had encountered physical violence from the age of 12, while six per cent reported experiencing physical violence in the 12 months preceding the survey. FGM has been practiced in Somaliland for several decades. The recent government survey found that FGM is high at 98 per cent among women aged between 15 and 49.

"It is better not to have a law at all than have the so-called Rape, Fornication and Other Related Offences Bill. We know that it will not tackle sexual offences crimes. We need a more comprehensive and effective law," Ms. Mohamed says, "This was a great setback for us. We were very disappointed – however, we will continue our fight and will not rest until we ensure that there are enough laws protecting women from violence and giving them all the rights they deserve."

We are quoting from the UNSOM website 
https://unsom.unmissions.org/nafisa-yusuf-mohamed-driving-force-women%E2%80%99s-rights-somaliland

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