Geothermal energy refers to natural heat energy derived from heat reservoirs located beneath the Earth’s surface known as hot spots, which are areas where magma comes from the lower mantle. Floating up, pushing up the earth’s crust causes the hot spot to be not very deep from the earth’s surface.
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Most of these areas are located at the joints of the tectonic plates, causing magma or molten rock to be closer than other areas. When water seeps down to the hot rock beneath the Earth’s surface, the water accumulates. and gets heat from the hot rock Until the water becomes hot water and the steam has a high pressure. and tried to insert himself on the surface And appear in the form of hot springs, hot springs, hot steam, boiling mud pools, etc.
Humans have used geothermal heat since ancient times by taking a shower to cleanse the body, believing that there are chemicals that help kill germs and nourish skin. Humans began to use heat to produce electricity for the first time in 1904 and Technology was developed steadily until the oil price crisis in 1973 saw the importance of energy from this source. making it widely used and becoming more and more popular
Normally, the temperature beneath the Earth’s surface increases with depth. In other words, the deeper you go, the higher the temperature.
6.1 Area suitable for the use of geothermal energy
Areas with geothermal energy And can be easily used in most areas where the magma is not deep from the soil surface. It is the area where the earth’s crust moves. or areas where volcanoes are still active This area will There is a layer of the earth’s crust that is thinner than other areas, including countries in the west of South America. and North America, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Greece, Italy and Iceland, etc., including countries along the Ring of Fire.
In Thailand, it is found in hot spring sources such as Pong Hom Hot Spring. San Kamphaeng District Pong Kum Hot Spring Doi Saket District Chiang Mai Province and hot springs in Mae Tha District, Lamphun Province, Fang Hot Springs Pong Muang Ngam hot springs and Mae Chan Hot Springs, etc.
Characteristics of geothermal energy sources found in the world
Geothermal energy sources found in the world can be divided into 3 major characteristics:
1) Hot Water Dominated is a geothermal energy source. with underground water sources The hot water will have a temperature of 100◦C or more. This type of geothermal energy source
2) Stream Dominated is a geothermal source consisting mostly of water vapor, more than 90 percent. This type of heat source originates from shallow molten rock. The temperature of hot steam is higher. 240◦C, geothermal sources like this are very rare. But suitable for use in the construction of geothermal plants. because the heat source is shallow And power plants need steam.
3) Hot Dry Rock, a geothermal energy source in this manner. There is no hot water or steam, so if it is to be used as an energy source in a power plant, water must be compressed through the borehole. In order for the compressed water to transfer heat energy from those hot rocks.
6.3 Direct utilization of geothermal energy
Taking advantage of geothermal energy, such as hot springs, if the geothermal source is not high enough. Those hot springs are often used for tourism. or for the treatment of disease
In case the geothermal source temperature is not very high And cannot be developed into a tourist attraction, often using that heat to make a geothermal drying room for use in drying agricultural crops For example, baking tobacco leaves, baking chili, etc. or in a cold country will bring heat from the underworld to warm the tree nursery. make trees grow faster
side to give warmth to the building
Countries with a cold climate such as Iceland, Italy, France, Poland, USA, Japan, etc. will bring geothermal energy. Come take advantage of creating warmth for houses, hospitals, schools, swimming pools, etc. by embedding hot water pipes on the floor or building walls. Then pump water from the geothermal water to flow through those pipes. Hot water transfers heat energy to the floor or wall. causing the floor and walls to heat up and such heat will warm the air in that area and there will be no ice on the floor that will cause the floor to become slippery
Because the temperature of the ground at the depth of 5 – 10 meters is quite constant throughout the year at about 10 – 26 degrees Celsius (depending on the area), therefore under the ground can act as a cold water changer. It can be warm in winter. such as in winter The weather is almost zero degrees, the water in the pond or pond has a similarly cold temperature. But when the water is pumped underground, the cold water will become warm, the same temperature as the underground temperature. In the summer, the water in the pond or pool will have a high temperature as well. The same system can change hot water to a lower temperature.